What is the purpose of a motherboard’s 4-pin PWM cable?

Pwm cable: When your motherboard uses PWM, your fan speeds can adjust based on temperature changes. To use PWM, connect the fan cable’s PWM connector to the PWM headers on the motherboard. There will be four pins on the header for the PWM connector. PWM fans are simply DC fans with an additional wire attached to them for use with pulse width modulation (PWM).

Four-pin PWM fans:

Four-pin PWM fans have a PWM signal sent to the fan motor on the fourth wire. The PWM signal is used as the fan’s control input. As they keep the CPU cool while also ventilating the case, cooling fans are a critical component of computer hardware. As one of the approved cooling mechanisms for processors, all computers come equipped with built-in fans. Fan-operated computers utilize ambient coolant to draw in coolant and exhaust warm air to the outdoors.

Look at two different types of cooling fans:

Additionally, they help heat sinks work more efficiently by dispersing air across them. In this article, pulse-width modulated (PWM) and direct-current (DC) models. You’re not the only one who has wondered what a motherboard’s. The header isn’t well-known by some, but learning about it is worthwhile because of its advantages. We’ll look at the advantages of using a 4-pin PWM header and go over the components you’ll need to build a fan controller.

4-Pin Pwm cable: What Is It?

When using a PC fan, attach a 4-pin PWM header to the connector. It’s best to go back and review what PWM is all about to understand why it exists.

Frequency Modulation of the Heartbeat:

The pulse width of a periodic virtual pulse can be changed using a pwm cable to alter the duty cycle. With PWM, digital values are converted to an analog voltage by sending duty cycle-dependent pulses with a frequency corresponding to the desired analog voltage. Changing the active high state interval allows information to be encoded into a carrier pulse using PWM. PWM can find in servo motor controllers, dimmers, buzzers, and telecommunication encoders, among other things.

What is the purpose of a motherboard’s 4-pin PWM cable?

The reason is simple: the enclosure’s cooling fan is controlled by the 4-pin PWM header. Most modern motherboards have a header for a PWM-enabled BLDC fan, and this is what you’ll find on the majority of them. The CPU or GPU is used to control the fan speed via pulse width modulation (PWM).

What Is the Process?

It is used to control voltage, which is what a PWM fan does. The PWM control pin controls the fan’s speed by supplying voltage. It’s also a way to give the motherboard’s thermal management system better and smarter control. The generation of heat by CPUs and GPUs is well-known. They don’t, however, always push themselves to the limit. When a cooling fan runs at full speed, it creates a lot of noise.

Built-in tachometer feedback:

With a 4-pin PWM fan, a built-in motor speed sensor serves as an additional feedback wire to the motherboard in addition to the three power, ground, and signal pins. The motherboard benefits greatly from this feedback because it tells it whether the fan is spinning at the correct speed or not. When a fan fails, and the motherboard temperature rises unnoticed, internal components can overheat and become damaged.

How to Create a 4-Pin PWM Fan Control Circuit?

If you’re given the task of designing a 4-pin PWM fan controller, consider yourself fortunate. Microcontrollers with built-in PWM modules make it incredibly simple. The use of pre-installed PWM modules saves you the time and effort of writing code to simulate software PWM. Most low-end microcontrollers can likely handle the frequency required by most 4-pin PWM fans, 25 kHz. To change the fan’s speed, write the desired value into the PWM register on the controller.

Interrupt-triggered input pin:

Analog signals should not be placed near the PWM trace because PCB designers wouldn’t have to worry about it. You don’t want the Pulse width noise to contaminate the analog traces that are next to it.

PWM vs. DC Computer Fans: Which Is Better?

When using a laptop, you may notice fluctuations in the amount of heat generated. This wide range of heat dissipation raises many questions about cooling fans and how fast they should be running. When the laptop is cool, the fan doesn’t have to run as fast. However, if your laptop gets too hot, you may need to add more fans to it. PWM fans and DC fans are the most commonly discussed solutions for controlling the speed of cooling fans.

Fans with PWM or 4-Pin connectors:

PWM fans have an additional wire for pulse width modulation (PWM), which are DC fans. Four-pin PWM fans have a PWM signal sent to the fan motor on the fourth wire. The PWM signal is used as the fan’s control input. Open-drain or open-collector outputs with 5 V or 3.3 V pull-ups are commonly used as the control inputs for microcontrollers. The PWM control signals are square waves with a high frequency, usually 25 kHz or higher.

PWM signal determines how long it runs:

The fan motor’s speed is controlled by the duty cycle of the PWM signal. The fan’s motor will always be powered by 12 V, but the duty cycle of the PWM signal determines how long it runs. A duty cycle of 40% keeps the fan running for 40% of the PWM signal’s total duration, while the other 60% of the time, it is off. Cooling fans have a speed variation between 30 and 100 percent of their rated speed.

How fast cooling fans spin?

Firmware and software advancements in computer technology have made it possible to use CPU or case temperature to control the speed of PWM fans. CPU coolers with high power consumption commonly use a pwm cable. Using Cadence’s OrCAD software for DC voltage control or duty cycle control opens up new possibilities.

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